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God's will, as announced in revelation, is to be simply accepted and acted upon, not watered down, not overstrained. This injunction had already been given in the old Law Deuteronomy ; Deuteronomy ; it is repeated in the New Testament with awful emphasis Revelation , Revelation No human speculations or traditions may be mingled with God's words; the glosses and explanations and definitions, affixed by rabbinical ingenuity to plain enactments, and proved to be false in morality and fatal to vital religion, are a commentary on the succeeding sentence, Lest he reprove thee, and thou be found a liar.
The reproof is found in the consequences of such additions; the results to which they lead are such as show that no who asserts that these things are contained in the Word of God is a liar.
A mashal ode, containing two requests, and a rationale of the latter. The matter of the two prayers connects it with Proverbs , whether we consider that the limitation of man's desire follows naturally the limitation of his knowledge Plumptre.
It is the first of Agur's numerical proverbs. Two things have I required of thee. The personal pronoun applies to God, who, according to our interpretation, has been invoked in Proverbs ; otherwise it stands without reference to anything preceding.
Deny me not before I die; i. Here is the first request: Remove far from me vanity and lies. Shay , "vanity," is inward hollowness and worthlessness, and "lies" are the expression of this in words.
The prayer might indeed be taken as an entreaty against being polluted with the companionship of the evil, like "Lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil;" but it is best taken subjectively, as a supplication for personal truthfulness and sincerity in all relations both towards God and man.
Give me neither poverty nor riches. Both extremes are deprecated: the mean is the safest and the happiest, Horace, 'Carm. Desunt multa; bene est, cui deus obtulit.
Parca, quod satis est, manu. The gods most wisely thus their gifts accord,. Giving 'enough,' they amply give to all.
On frugal means without corroding care. Feed me with food convenient for me; literally, give me to eat the bread of my portion ; that which by God s providence is determined for me comp.
Genesis , which speaks of the portion assigned for the support of the priests; Job ; and below, Proverbs In the latter, bread for the needs of the coming day is meant; in our passage it is more indefinite, a casting one's self on the Divine love, in readiness to take what that love assigns.
Paul 1 Timothy , "we shall be therewith content. The reason for the latter prayer follows, unless, as some consider, the prayer is one, as if Agur asked, "Take from me riches which lead to vanity, and poverty which leads to lying and deceit.
Lest I be full, and deny thee, and say, Who is the Lord Jehovah? Great wealth and temporal prosperity tempt to forgetfulness of God, to self-confidence and practical unbelief in Divine providence.
Like Pharaoh, the haughty rich man asks with scorn, "Who is the Lord, that I should obey his voice? Deuteronomy , etc. Septuagint, "Lest being filled I become false, and say, Who seeth me?
And take the name of my God in vain. The verb taphas means "to grasp at, seize violently, handle roughly," and the sin intended may be either false swearing in denial of his theft and to escape punishment, or the arraignment of God's providence which has allowed him to fall into such distress.
Thus Isaiah , "They shall pass through it, hardly bestead and hungry; and it shall come to pass that, when they shall be hungry, they shall fret themselves, and curse their king and their God.
Accuse not a servant unto his master. Do not secretly bring a charge against a man's slave, and make his master suspicious of him; have a kind feeling for those in lowly condition, and do not render their lot more unbearable by insinuating false or frivolous accusations against them.
Ewald and others would render, "Entice not a servant to slander his master;" but there is no need so to take the expression, as the hiph.
Lest he curse thee, and thou be found guilty, and have to atone for it. The slandered slave imprecates a curse on his slanderer, and, as the latter has incurred vengeance by his word or action, the curse will not fall harmless Proverbs ; God's righteous retribution will overtake him, and he shall suffer for it.
First Proverbs come four generations that are evil—four being taken as the symbol of universality. The sins herein specified had become so general that they affected the whole generation.
There is a generation that eurseth their father. The words, "there is," are not found in the Hebrew, and the four subjects are without a predicate.
Delitzsch calls the group "a mutilated priamel," which is explained to be a kind of gnomic poetry containing a series of antecedents or subjects followed by an epigrammatic conclusion applicable to all the antecedents.
In the present ease the conclusion is wanting, so that we are left in doubt whether the author meant merely to de.
The first sin is that which offends against the commandment to honour and obey parents. This was judged worthy of death under the old Law Exodus ; see Proverbs , and note there.
And doth not bless their mother. This is a litotes , "not to bless" being equivalent to "to curse. A generation that are pure in their own eyes Proverbs The second characteristic is hypocrisy and Pharisaical self-righteousness see Luke And yet are not washed from their filthiness ; have not cleansed their heart by complete repentance, either because they have not examined themselves and know nothing of the real state of their conscience, or because they care nothing about it and will not regard it in its true light.
There is a similar expression in Isaiah A generation, oh, how lofty are their eyes! The third sin is pride and arrogance see on Proverbs ; Proverbs The prophet rebukes "the stout heart of the King of Assyria and the glory of his high looks" Isaiah Their eyelids are lifted up; in supercilious disdain.
A generation, whose teeth are as swords, and their jaw teeth as knives. The fourth evil is insatiable cupidity, which leads to oppression and injurious treatment of the helpless and poor, which makes men as cruel and remorseless in destroying others and despoiling them of their substance, as the very steel which they use in their operations.
Similarly, the psalmist speaks of his enemies as men "whose teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword" Psalms ; comp.
Isaiah ; Jeremiah To devour the poor from off the earth; i. Amos , "Hear this, O ye that would swallow up the needy, and cause the poor of the land to fail" comp.
Psalms Having spoken of insatiate cupidity, the writer now introduces four things which are insatiable.
The form of the apothegm is climacteric, mounting from two to three, and thence to four, like the famous passage in Amos , etc.
Proverbs , though there is no special stress there laid on the last member of the climax; Job ; Job ; Ecclesiastes The horseleach hath two daughters, crying, Give, give.
The word "crying" is not in the Hebrew, which says, "The alukah hath two daughters: Give! Jerome sanguisuga. The word is derived from a root which in Arabic means "to adhere.
It seems simple and quite satisfactory to accept the word thus, and to see in the voracity of the leech an example of the greed further developed in the following clauses; but commentators have not been contented with this explanation, and have offered various suggestions which are either unnecessary or inadmissible.
Thus the Talmud considers alukah to be an appellation of hell, and the two daughters to be the Power of the world, and Heresy. Some of the Fathers regard it as a symbol of the devil and his dominion; others, as a personification of cupidity with its two offshoots avarice and ambition.
Some moderns deem it to mean a vampire or blood thirsty demon, a ghoul, in accordance with Eastern myth. But, as we have said, such interpretations are unnecessary and unsupported by sufficient authority.
The allusion to the tastes of the leech is found elsewhere. Thus Theocritus, 'Idyll. Senati qui columen cluent. Ewald and others find traces of mutilation in this proverb, and endeavour to supply what is lost in various ways; but the text as it stands is intelligible, and needs no addition.
The rest of the verse is an application of the truth first stated. The type of cupidity there enunciated is instanced and exemplified in four special cases.
There are three things that are never satisfied. And then a corrective climax is addressed. Yea, four things say not, It is enough. The four in the following verse are divided into two plus two.
Septuagint, "The leech had three daughters dearly beloved, and these three did not satisfy her, and the fourth was not contented to say, Enough.
The four insatiable things are now named: first, the grave, sheol Proverbs , which can never be filled with its victims. Horace talks of a man as—.
The second thing is the barren womb; "the closing of the womb," as Genesis ; Isaiah The burning desire for children, characteristic of an Israelitish wife, is here denoted, like the passionate cry of Rachel to Jacob, "Give me children, or else I die" Genesis The barren woman, says Corn.
The more you heap on fire, the more material you supply, the fiercer it rages. Septuagint, "Hades, and the love of woman, and earth not satisfied with water, and water, and fire, will not say, It sufficeth.
This is an independent proverb, only connected with the preceding by being founded on an allusion to an animal. The eye that mocketh at his father. The eye is named as the mind's instrument for expressing scorn and insubordination; it is the index to the inner feeling; and look may be as sinful as action.
And despiseth to obey his mother ; i. But etymology has led most modem commentators to give the sense of "obedience" see Genesis The ravens of the valley shall pick it out.
Such an undutiful son shall die a violent death; his corpse shall lie unburied, and the birds of prey shall feed upon him.
It is well known that ravens, vultures, and other birds that live on carrion first attack the eyes of their prey; and in our own islands we are told crows and birds of this sort will fix on the eyes of young or sickly animals.
Intestina canes, cetera membra lupi. His bowels dogs, his limbs the greedy wolves. Young eagles. The nesher must here mean one of the vulture tribe, as eagles do not feed on carrion but see Job Gregory 'Moral.
A proverb concerning four inscrutable things, connected with the last by mention of the eagle. There be three things which are too wonderful for me, yea, four which I know not.
The great point is the fourth, to which the three previous things lead up, all of them being alike in this, that they leave no trace.
The facts are marvellous; Agur feels like Job, "I have uttered that which I understood not, things too wonderful for me, which I knew not" Job The way of an eagle in the air.
You cannot by any outward sign know that an eagle has passed this or that way. The way of a serpent upon a rock. The snake's mode of progression by the lever-like motion of its ribs might well awake surprise, but the point is still the tracklessness of its course.
On sand or soft ground its movements might be traced by the impression made. The way of a ship in the midst heart of the sea; i. You can trace a ship's course while she is near land or within sight, but when she reaches the open sea, you can follow her furrow no longer.
But this is feeble, and almah is without doubt rightly rendered "maid," "virgin. This is exemplified and confirmed in the following verse. It is not sufficient to refer the saying to the insidious arts of the seducer, by which he saps the principles and inflames the passions of his victim.
The sin of unchastity is signified, which demands secrecy and affords no token of its commission. Two of the above parallels, says Cheyne, are given in a quatrain of a Vedic hymn to Varuna—.
The soaring eagle's flight he knows. Some of the Fathers and earlier commentators, and among moderns, Bishop Wordsworth, have not been content with the literal sense of this gnonic, but have found in it, as in the others, deep spiritual mysteries.
Christ is the great Eagle Revelation , who ascended beyond human ken; the serpent is the devil, who works his wily way in secret, and who tried to pass into the mind of Christ, who is the Rock; the ship is the Church, which preserves its course amid the waves of this troublesome world, though we cannot mark its strength or whither it is guided; and the fourth mystery is the incarnation of Jesus Christ our Lord, when "the virgin almah conceived and bare a son" Isaiah , when "a woman encompassed a man geber " Jeremiah We can see the greater or less appropriateness of such accommodation, but the proverb must have been received by contemporaries only in its literal sense, whatever were the inner mysteries which the Holy Spirit wished to communicate thereby.
This verse is a kind of gloss or illustration of the last thought of the preceding verse, and seems not to have formed an original part of the numerical proverb.
It might well be placed in a parenthesis. Many commentators consider it to be an interpolation. Such is the way of an adulterous woman.
What Agur had said of a man above, he now applies to the practised adulteress, whose sin cannot be traced. She eateth. This is a euphemism for the sin which she commits, "Stolen waters are sweet, and bread eaten in secret is pleasant" Proverbs ; comp.
And wipeth her mouth, as if to leave no trace of her illicit repast. And saith, I have done no wickedness. As she has sinned in secret, and there is no outward proof of her guilt, she boldly denies it.
Septuagint, "Such is the way of an adulterous woman, who, when she has committed the act, having washed herself, says she has done nothing amiss.
Then follows a proverb concerning four things which are intolerable, examples of incongruous associations or positions—two in the case of men, two in the case of women.
For three things the earth is disquieted ; better, under three things the earth doth tremble , as if oppressed by an overwhelming borden.
The form of expression does not allow us to think of an earthquake. Amos These four evils destroy the comfort of social life, uproot the bonds of society, and endanger the safety of a nation.
For a servant when he reigneth ; or, under a slave when he becometh king. This startling vicissitude was not uncommon in Eastern states; and even if the slave was not preferred to regal power, he was often advanced by unwise favouritism to high position, for which he was wholly unfitted, and which he used only to aggrandize himself at the expense and to the injury of others, This incongruity has been already noticed at Proverbs where see note.
And a fool when he is filled with meat. When such a one rises to high position, or has power over others, he becomes arrogant, selfish, unbearable comp.
Proverbs ; Proverbs ; Proverbs For an odious woman when she is married; or, under an unloved woman when she is married. The sentence does not refer to an unbeloved wife, a Leah, becoming the favourite, a Rachel; the expression, "when she is married," can hardly have this sense; but the gnome speaks of a woman who has passed much of her life without love, having nothing about her attractive either in looks, attainments, or manner, and is consequently soured and ill-tempered.
If such a one does at last win a husband, she uses her new position to vex those who formerly depreciated her, and to make them as miserable as she cam And a handmaid that is heir to her mistress.
The maidservant that obtains her mistress's property, either by supplanting her or by right of inheritance, is supposed to make a bad use of it, to become conceited, arrogant, and odious to all around her.
There be four things which are little upon the earth , in contrast with the intolerable pretensions of the last group. The Vulgate has minima ; but the original is not superlative, which would not be true of some of the creatures named.
The Septuagint and Vulgate translate in the comparatives. The ants are a people not strong. The ant is proposed as an example to the sluggard Proverbs , etc.
He calls the ants a people, am , because they live in a community, and have authorities which they obey, and their actions are regulated by certain definite laws.
So Joel Joel calls the locusts a nation, and Homer 'Iliad,' 2. In countries where ants hybernate the object of this commended foresight is mistaken; but the statement, as that in Proverbs , is in accordance with the popular belief of the day, and serves well to point the moral intended.
We know certainly that in Europe these insects fill their nests with heterogeneous articles—grain, seeds, husks, etc; not as stores to be consumed in the winter, but for warmth and comfort's sake.
Scripture is not intended to teach science; it speaks of such matters phenomenally, with no attempt at a precision which would not have been understood or appreciated by contemporaries.
But in the present case more careful observation has confirmed the correctness of the asset. In countries where, ants do not hybernate, they do make granaries for themselves in the summer, and use these supplies as food in the winter months see note on Proverbs The conies are but a feeble folk.
The term "coney" cuniculus is applied to the rabbit, but this is not the animal here intended; and indeed rabbits are not found in Palestine.
The word shaphan designates the Hyrax Syriacus , called by some the rock badger. SEK steckt der Konzern. Programm zur Zukunftssicherung des Standortes verabschiedet, weitere Investitionen freigegeben.
Göteborg, Montag, Der Vertrag soll dem mexikanischen Stahlproduzenten helfen, in seinem Walzwerk in Celaya die.
SKF und die niederländische University of Twente bündeln ihre Forschungskompetenzen, um Fortschritte in einem Bereich voranzutreiben, der für die Leistung rotierender Maschinen entscheidend ist: Fettschmierung.
Bewerbungsfrist für läuft noch bis 4. Direkter Kontakt mit Ausbildern,. Schweinfurt, August die Funktion Manager Global Operations innerhalb.
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The bond was issued in two tranches with SEK 2, million at a floating. Gothenburg, Sweden, May 29th, Guillermo E. Then the most varied legal regulations from different lands must be considered.
And finally, mass production has its own multifaceted strictures which must be prepared for well in advance. Four to five years are a reasonable development period fora completely new model where new engine, gearbox and suspension as well as body must all be designed and tested.
The following sections are arranged to acquaint you with the systems of car design before we delve directly into the project,. A suitably proportioned test area where testing can be carried out to the ultimate level, far from prying eyes.
The range of such equipment has taken on an entirely new face in the last ten years. Classic engine brakes - magic attractions for every car fan- have been joined by an extraordinary new range of colleagues.
Alongside test rigs for noise dampening and emissions are the at least equally vital and extensive safety test units.
The overall value of a modern development center easily runs between 65 and 85 million dollars and one must understand that such figures don't even include expensive extras like a high-speed test track or large-scale wind tunnel.
And that doesn't even include the investment costs for a production run which can soar far higher. It takes: A schooled and experienced development team with engineers for design and testing.
A styling studio with designers experienced in both the auto branch and industry. Large experimental shops staffed by talented and efficient personnel using an extensive array of test units and measuring equipment of all kinds.
A data. Since there is almost always time pressure the various departments must be integrated without time-consuming bureaucracy, leading to the breakthrough of that new development in organization.
Porsche and other progressive firms have adopted the policy of removing such projects from the customary company hierarchy of division, main department and department heads.
For any given project the management will consist of suitable workers from all branches concerned. The head of such a project group remains responsible for the duration of that project with the hierarchy to support and advise him.
At the top is a project father who comes from the upper levels of the development management cadre.
He serves as referee in questions of competencies and deadlines. The development manager only interferes in exceptional cases; if problems arise with other branches of the firm, for instance, or when specification guidelines regarding function, time or cost become endangered.
The Board, finally, must approve any significant change in the project book; a departure from the basic concept, for instance.
As a rule the original project director at Porsche is an engineer from Construction, holding the rank of department head, If a project then procedes to the actual test phase, he turns over responsibility to a colleague from Testing.
In rough outline, a development project goes like this: To start with there is a clearly defined target outline from the firm's management.
This formulates the problems to be solved and acts as starting gun for the development team. The various development phases can now proceed: creation, detailing, testing and production preparation.
In the first half-year after a project assignment is issued we have the actual creative phase, breeding unbelievably hectic action. At that point there are still relatively few people working on the project so such haste is understandable.
The overall development realm can only swing. The immediately-assigned project group begins with a target idea and works out the final target outline.
This outline is then the starting gun for both Engineering and Styling. Engineering can develop its basic concept consisting of a phantom drawing which includes all firm design characteristics; size of interior compartment and desired luggage space, engine position and type of drive line, Wheelbase and exterior dimensions plus ergonomic demands.
Once these guidelines are set Styling goes into action. The stylists produce many sketches of possible car forms as they edge their way towards a final shape.
A new design leaves the paper work stage for the first time at this point. Three or four particularly promising solutions are chosen from roughly a dozen good styling suggestions and transferred to three-dimensional plasticine models in a scale of 1 As soon as one of these 1 :5 models is chosen a styling buck, sometimes called the seating buck, is built in the workshop.
This is a 1 :1 mock-up and one of the most important early-stage tools. It forms the basis for evaluating the chances of a body concept.
And it indicates whether theoretical measurements for interior, luggage and engine compartments can actually be realized in practice, while revealing the actual conditions for entry, seating and vision as well.
Meanwhile the project management has not been idle. Along with coordinating activities between Engineering, Styling and Model Building, it has solved its main task during this first development stage - working out a complete project book, This compiles detailed demands from all areas against which the maturity of our designed and tested vehicle will later be measured.
This project book outlines, among other things: - A technical production description with measurements, weights, seating conditions and tank capacity, expected driving performance and handling, layout of.
This project book, once approved by a firm's management, is the definitive plan for all further work. It includes every basic requirement for the vehicle under development and provides precise direction.
Later alterations to a project book are greatly feared since, as a rule, they set off an uncontrollable chain reaction touching every aspect.
Fixed dates can no longer be met, work already done by other departments is invalidated at a stroke and costs soar. Therefore, alterations to a project book are only approved under pressure of extreme circumstance - new mandates from the lawmakers, for instance, or grave changes in market conditions.
While this project book is still being juggled Engineering has already initiated tasks for which the basic concept gave sufficient foundation and for which there is particular time pressure.
These involve designs and drawings for parts which carry long production deadlines or test periods including crankcase, cylinder head and so forth. The Experimental Department also swings into action at this early stage.
In close concert with Engineering the test team influences certain decisions through its preliminary experiments. Using modified production cars and outside vehicles they research the workability of suggestions and test the suitability of a basic concept.
The second half-year in the development life of an automobile is a phase of total effort from Engineering and Styling.
Alter the selected 1 :5 model has been optimized in a wind tunnel a 1 :1 model, also of plasticine, is created in the styling workshop, the so-called Studio, and its surface covered with a plastic foil which makes it look deceptively like a properly painted car.
This life-size model serves management as a basis for approval of the exterior form. Shortly thereafter another 1 ; 1 model is made of hard foam.
The first plastic body parts are taken from it and fitted to an improvised platform equipped with engine, gearbox and suspension mock-ups.
Later this plastic car will be fitted with its own drive units to become mobile. While low body stiffness prohibits any evaluation of handling, first driving tests can be made.
Meanwhile, engineers are working without pause at their design office drawing boards. They detail designs from the first half-year and work out finished drawings for engine, gearbox, axles and body platform.
Works Preparation comes in too, and has auxiliary tooling prepared for those parts which determine deadlines. The Studio has long since become involved with interior styling.
The procedure is similar to that for an exterior shape except that the interim 1 :5 model stage may be eliminated. The best solutions are crystalized from a multitude of drawings and presented on a scale of 1 :1 in handmade mock-ups.
The car has taken shape by now, at least as far as its exterior is concerned, after roughly twelve months, and basic body functions can be evaluated.
The third half-year brings a maximum effort from Works Preparation and Testing for the first time, as well as from Product Planning. While various sub-assemblies, normal models and outside vehicles using now-complete engine, gearbox and axles, are actually running, Works Preparation in collaboration with Engineering and Testing procures auxiliary tools and prototype parts.
In the meantime the hour has come for production line planning experts. They were kept informed from an early stage but now their efforts become decisive.
Their planning is equally vital to a satisfactory development outcome since their work decides whether the new car will emerge from development ready for rational production.
After some eighteen months the first "true" prototype stands on its wheels with engine and gearbox already past their first test runs.
During the fourth half-year test programs of the experimental department come to the fore. Here we must differentiate between functional testing concerned with fulfillment of handling quality and performance standards and testing for endurance which is concerned with quality and durability.
Such endurance runs include condensedtime experiments on the accelerated-test track. By using extreme conditions salt water splash, potholes, ramp jumps and other hardships materials can be subjected to demands which would only occur in normal driving after a far higher mileage.
At Weissach the test track program has achieved a factor of 1 so that miles of such testing correspond to roughly , miles of average customer driving.
This testing serves chiefly to check those components which cannot be evaluated for durability on a test bench with sufficient reality.
Fifth and sixth half-years: Testing continues and procurement begins. During further track and bench tests the main accent now falls on a number of details all-important to the later success of a vehicle, Proper compromises must be found; in engine or gearbox mounts between noise and vibration comfort; on the intake side between fuel consumption, exhaust decontamination and throttle Although any development center has climatic test chambers to simulate extreme operational conditions, "real" cold and heat tests are still found in the standard test program of many builders, At Porsche extensive runs in the Alps and on the Arctic Circle have become a firm component of cold-weather testing as well as evaluating handling on snow or ice.
The counterpart to this is a large-scale program in the North African desert where they not only test for extreme heat but over unbelievably bad desert tracks which provide an ideal supplement to tests already performed on shaker surfaces at home.
Sand and dust which penetrate every crevice are a phenomenon hated by any test driver but welcomed in the test program.
Meanwhile the most important decision since the project began has been made. This was a green light for the purchase of tooling, operational means of production and components.
All previous decisions were made within the development budget but now that framework is considerably exceeded.
The project reaches a dimension from which there is virtually no retreat. The firm's management must ask itself one last time: are we going in the right direction with this development, will the car find its place on the market, is there even a sufficiently large market niche for i t - in short, does our bill of particulars work out at the bottom line?
Planning concepts must now include production drawings and the leeway for alterations thus becomes smaller. Despite this fact, experience drawn from test operations will initiate constant modification - and any developing automobile must live with that fact.
A small pre-series must be put onto wheels as rapidly as possible to give production and quality control experts an opportunity to gather experience with the new vehicle under near-production conditions.
This or that is bound to go wrong - not everything which seems smooth as silk in the test department will necessarily work out in production.
Based on experience gained and evaluated from this pre-series, an actual dress rehearsal or pilot series is launched roughly six months before production begins.
Once again a number of facts may be determined from this pilot series and applied before production actually begins, and these can cause redispositions.
Thus the final few months before production starts become a race against time and problems of all kinds. This last major phase in development is always a high strain time for all concerned.
It demands the willingness and ability to compromise and to make rapid decisions with flexiblity. A proper crisis team is formed to solve problems which crop up daily.
Actual test work has concluded in the meantime and all requirements in the project book have been fulfilled. They have begun to fix the type, a further control procedure to some degree.
Apart from national construction approval there are approximately one dozen registration tests to be passed in other lands. Expenditures for safety and environmental protection made during the development phase were considerable and they increase steadily.
The catalogue of such regulations has grown from roughly sixty laws in to over in It is understandable that engineers and experimental.
The long-demanded and urgently-needed standardization of norms for safety and evironmental protection lies far in the future - what one country may demand today will be forbidden by another.
The confusion inherent in such widely varied laws absorbs energy which could be far more usefully applied. While production start up is being tested and type fixing is underway other segments of the firm have long-since become involved too.
Distribution prepares for the introduction of a new model to dealers and customers. Marketing concepts are developed, publicity strategy established and literature of all kinds printed.
Customer service men work at peak revs too - the entire inspection and repair system with its training of personnel, the writing of maintenance literature, technical outfitting of workshops and handling of warranties must be established, Spares of all kinds must be available and catalogued for day one.
And the very first customer will want his manual which- like all other literature- must be printed in various languages, Thus the circle from first sketch to production maturity is closing steadily.
Hundreds of workers were involved in the achievement, carrying heavy responsibilities and overcoming all difficulties. From this fact alone we can trace the most impressive characteristic of today's automobile development: its all-encompassing teamwork.
Automobiles are no longer built by individuals. They are never a one-man show any more. Whereas the first designs of ninety years ago were still the basic achievements of individual pioneers and while later cars, far into the thirties even, showed the clear hand of a designer ruling over his crew, the development of any automobile has now become a terribly complex and multilayered task which can only be solved by the perfect teamwork of a homogenous crew.
Porsche has often been described as the smallest among the auto factories and while this might be true within Germany, international comparisons prove the opposite.
Really small builders, particularly those of Italian or English persuasion, produce from 50 to cars annually.
Against these, Porsche's current annual production of over 15, units with a work force of some seems gigantic.
Isn't it more a case of the giant among small auto firms? The tradition-rich firm in Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen is truly the smallest real car forge, the David among giants, because Porsche is separated by whole worlds from the true small builders who are almost all in deep difficulty, incidentally.
A more or less handwork-style of production without in-house body construction, inadequate customer service nets, modest distribution channels and a lack of development capacity with limited test facilities - none of these factors are a problem for the Swabian sport car builder.
Porsche of Zuffenhausen, Weissach and Ludwigsburg bears all the features of a large automobile factory. How did this undertaking break the bounds of a small, handwork operation after ?
Was it business foresight or good fortune? A glance at the firm's development path indicates that both those components must have been involved.
We can assume that the prehistory - marked by the name of Ferdinand Porsche - is well known to all. Thus we will only recapitulate briefly here how the one-time technical director of Austro Daimler, Daimler Benz and Steyr opened his own design office in Stuttgart during And how this office made headlines for the first time with the Auto Union Grand Prix car.
How it launched the Volkswagen project on its own initiative, one which later made Professor Ferdinand Porsche immortal. How this project was put through against every obstacle until a factory was created in Fallersieben later Wolfsburg under Porsche management, a plant destined to build the auto for everyman.
How this design office which settled into the Stuttgart industrial suburb of Zuffenhausen expanded to include an experimental department with its own workshops and how they developed cross-country vehicles during the war only to move to Gmund in Carinthia when the bombing began.
How postwar Volkswagen production began while Ferry Porsche and his people developed that first car in Gmund, based on the VW, which would carry the Porsche name.
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Der Verein bezweckt den Zusammenschluss von Besitzern von Windhunden mit dem Ziel, Windhundrennen als Windhundsport und darüber hinaus die Verbreitung der Windhundrassen zu fördern.
I ist. Züchter und Besitzer von Windhunden organisiert. By steviem Started February By Tomo. T Started October 30, By simon king Started March 14, Bunker Bash Bunker Bash Details.
Start new topic. Recommended Posts. I will be doing some reviews of it also and have some behind he closed doors photos of how he madness is over there these days with all the orders.
Also the variant paint jobs that were done for this project. Hoping to watch the videos this weekend though!
Keep an eye out for it!