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Vegetables, fruit, or nuts which have been glazed and coated with sugar are said to be candied. Physically, candy is characterized by the use of a significant amount of sugar or sugar substitutes.
Unlike a cake or loaf of bread that would be shared among many people, candies are usually made in smaller pieces. However, the definition of candy also depends upon how people treat the food.
Unlike sweet pastries served for a dessert course at the end of a meal, candies are normally eaten casually, often with the fingers, as a snack between meals.
Each culture has its own ideas of what constitutes candy rather than dessert. The same food may be a candy in one culture and a dessert in another.
Candy has its origins mainly in Ancient India. Between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, the Persians , followed by the Greeks , discovered the people in India and their "reeds that produce honey without bees".
They adopted and then spread sugar and sugarcane agriculture. Before sugar was readily available, candy was based on honey.
Before the Industrial Revolution , candy was often considered a form of medicine, either used to calm the digestive system or cool a sore throat.
In the Middle Ages candy appeared on the tables of only the most wealthy at first. At that time, it began as a combination of spices and sugar that was used as an aid to digestive problems.
Digestive problems were very common during this time due to the constant consumption of food that was neither fresh nor well balanced.
Banquet hosts would typically serve these types of 'candies' at banquets for their guests. One of these candies, sometimes called chamber spice , was made with cloves , ginger, aniseed , juniper berries , almonds and pine kernels dipped in melted sugar.
The Middle English word candy began to be used in the late 13th century. The first candy came to America in the early 18th century from Britain and France.
Only a few of the early colonists were proficient in sugar work and sugary treats were generally only enjoyed by the very wealthy.
Even the simplest form of candy — rock candy , made from crystallized sugar — was considered a luxury. The candy business underwent a drastic change in the s when technological advances and the availability of sugar opened up the market.
The new market was not only for the enjoyment of the rich but also for the pleasure of the working class. There was also an increasing market for children.
While some fine confectioners remained, the candy store became a staple of the child of the American working class. Penny candies epitomized this transformation of candy.
Penny candy became the first material good that children spent their own money on. For this reason, candy store-owners relied almost entirely on the business of children to keep them running.
Even penny candies were directly descended from medicated lozenges that held bitter medicine in a hard sugar coating. In , the invention of the candy press made it possible to produce multiple shapes and sizes of candy at once.
In , confectioners began to use a revolving steam pan to assist in boiling sugar. This transformation meant that the candy maker was no longer required to continuously stir the boiling sugar.
The heat from the surface of the pan was also much more evenly distributed and made it less likely the sugar would burn.
These innovations made it possible for only one or two people to successfully run a candy business. As the path from producer to market became increasingly complicated, many foods were affected by adulteration and the addition of additives which ranged from relatively harmless ingredients, such as cheap cornstarch and corn syrup , to poisonous ones.
Some manufacturers produced bright colors in candy by the addition of hazardous substances for which there was no legal regulation: green chromium oxide and copper acetate , red lead oxide and mercury sulfide , yellow lead chromate and white chalk , arsenic trioxide.
In an cover cartoon for Puck , Joseph Keppler satirized the dangers of additives in candy by depicting the "mutual friendship" between striped candy, doctors, and gravediggers.
Sugar candies include hard candies, soft candies, caramels, marshmallows, taffy, and other candies whose principal ingredient is sugar.
Commercially, sugar candies are often divided into groups according to the amount of sugar they contain and their chemical structure.
Hard-boiled candies made by the vacuum cooking process include stick candy , lemon drops and horehound drops.
Open-fire candy, like molasses taffy and cream taffy, is cooked in open kettles and then pulled. Pan work candies include nuts and other candies like jelly beans and sugar-coated almonds, made by coating with sugar in revolving copper kettles.
Gum work candy is cooked in large kettles fashioned for melting and molded, dried and sugared like gum drops.
They are soaked for a time in sugar syrup to allow crystals to form. Fruit-shaped hard candy is a common type of sugar candy, containing sugar, color, flavor, and a tiny bit of water.
Chikki are homemade nut brittles popular in India. Between the nuts or seeds is hard sugar candy. German Haribo gummy bears were the first gummi candy ever made.
They are soft and chewy. Fudge is a type of sugar candy that is made by mixing and heating sugar, butter and milk. Pantteri is a soft, chewy Finnish sugar candy.
The colored ones are fruity, while black are salmiakki salty licorice-flavored. Chocolate is sometimes treated as a separate branch of confectionery.
Hot chocolate or other cocoa-based drinks are excluded, as is candy made from white chocolate. However, when chocolate is treated as a separate branch, it also includes confections whose classification is otherwise difficult, being neither exactly candies nor exactly baked goods, like chocolate-dipped foods, tarts with chocolate shells, and chocolate-coated cookies.
Unsweetened baking chocolate contains no sugar. Bittersweet or dark chocolate contains some sugar. Milk chocolate contains milk and lower levels of cocoa solids.
Because white chocolate contains no cocoa solids, it is classified as sugar confectionery instead of chocolate.
Compound chocolate is used in place of pure chocolate to reduce costs. These flowers were made from modeling chocolate.
Sugar candies can be classified into noncrystalline and crystalline types. Noncrystalline candies are homogeneous and may be chewy or hard; they include hard candies, caramels, toffees, and nougats.
Crystalline candies incorporate small crystals in their structure, are creamy that melt in the mouth or are easily chewed; they include fondant and fudge.
Sugar candy is made by dissolving sugar in water or milk to form a syrup , which is boiled until it reaches the desired concentration or starts to caramelize.
Candy comes in a wide variety of textures, from soft and chewy to hard and brittle. The texture of candy depends on the ingredients and the temperatures that the candy is processed at.
The final texture of sugar candy depends primarily on the concentration of sugar. As the syrup is heated, it boils, water evaporates, the sugar concentration increases and the boiling point rises.
A given temperature corresponds to a particular sugar concentration. These are called sugar stages. In general, higher temperatures and greater sugar concentrations result in hard, brittle candies, and lower temperatures result in softer candies.
This should not be confused with caramel candy , although it is the candy's main flavoring. Most candies are made commercially.
The industry relies significantly on trade secret protection, because candy recipes cannot be copyrighted or patented effectively, but are very difficult to duplicate exactly.
Seemingly minor differences in the machinery, temperature, or timing of the candy-making process can cause noticeable differences in the final product.
Candy wrapper or sweets wrapper is a common term for this packaging. Packaging preserves aroma and flavor and eases shipping and dispensation.
Wax paper seals against air, moisture, dust, and germs, while cellophane is valued by packagers for its transparency and resistance to grease, odors and moisture.
In addition, it is often resealable. Polyethylene is another form of film sealed with heat, and this material is often used to make bags in bulk packaging.
Plastic wraps are also common. Aluminum foils wrap chocolate bars and prevent a transfer of water vapor while being lightweight, non-toxic and odor proof.
Vegetable parchment lines boxes of high-quality confections like gourmet chocolates. Cardboard cartons are less common, though they offer many options concerning thickness and movement of water and oil.
Packages are often sealed with a starch-based adhesive derived from tapioca, potato, wheat, sago, or sweet potato. Occasionally, glues are made from the bones and skin of cattle and hogs for a stronger and more flexible product, but this is not as common because of the expense.
Prior to the s, candy was commonly sold unwrapped from carts in the street, where it was exposed to dirt and insects. By , there were some machines to wrap gum and stick candies, but this was not the common practice.
After the polio outbreak in , unwrapped candies garnered widespread censure because of the dirt and germs. At the time, only upscale candy stores used glass jars.
With advancements in technology, wax paper was adopted, and foil and cellophane were imported to the U. Necco packagers were one of the first companies to package without human touch.
Candy packaging played a role in its adoption as the most popular treat given away during trick-or-treating for Halloween in the US.
In the s, most treats were homemade. During the s, small, individually wrapped candies were recognized as convenient and inexpensive.
By the s, after widely publicized but largely false stories of poisoned candy myths circulating in the popular press, factory-sealed packaging with a recognizable name brand on it became a sign of safety.
Packaging helps market the product as well. Manufacturers know that candy must be hygienic and attractive to customers.
In the children's market quantity, novelty, large size and bright colors are the top sellers. A children's sticker is included in every box.
This fruit-flavored chewy candy was first released in It was re-released in its current shape a stick of several individually wrapped candies in February Hi-Chew candies are individually wrapped in logo-stamped foil or plain white wax paper depending on the localization.
Originally there was a sesame seed in the middle, later a poppy seed, but nowadays no seed at all. The name "konpeito" comes from the Portuguese word "confeito", meaning " confit " a type of confectionery.
Meiji chocolates flavors include cheese, black pepper, jasmine, basil, and lemon salt. This baked pretzel candy with a chocolate cream center is also available in strawberry and milk flavors.
Gummi Puccho squares have a unique consistency similar to a combination of gummy bears and taffy. They often contain gummy "balls" of flavor that are more chewy than the rest of the square.
There are also "fizz" balls that mimic the carbonation of their soda derivatives. Bbopgi or Dalgona. A Korean sweet candy made from melted sugar and baking soda.
This chewy, translucent, jelly -like foodstuff is produced by the fermentation of coconut water , which gels through the production of microbial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum.
Originating in the Philippines , nata de coco is most commonly sweetened as a candy or dessert, and can accompany many things including pickles , drinks, ice cream , puddings and fruit mixes.
A chocolate product that originated in the Philippines and has endured as one of the country's most consumed children's snacks.
Called Choc Nut because it is a mixture of powdered peanuts and chocolate. Invented in in Vienna. Comes in candy refill packs for Pez canisters that comes in a wide variety of famous cartoon characters.
This cone-shaped candy with a melty core and a crisp crust is traditionally flavored with raspberry. Plain or spiced Turkish delight with rose petals, white walnuts, or "endreshe".
Salty liquorice, is a variety of liquorice flavoured with ammonium chloride, common in the Nordic countries, the Netherlands, and northern Germany.
Shiny, small candy squares made from sugar and bergamot essential oil. This traditional French candy consists of a smooth, pale yellow, homogeneous paste of candied fruit especially melons and oranges and ground almonds topped with a thin layer of royal icing.
The calisson is believed to have its origins in medieval Italy. A chewy caramel candy. In , the name changed to "Super Caram'bar".
In , the name lost its apostrophe. The chocolate truffle is thought to have been first created by N. Mondelez International. The first French chewing gum, it was created in The French were introduced to chewing gum for the first time by the American troops stationed there in In , the gum's main advertising focus was that of the American Dream.
While Hollywood now offers a variety of different flavors, the very first flavor was spearmint. A sweet meringue -based cookie sandwich, with ganache, jam, or buttercream, between two halves.
Traditionally believed to have been introduced to France by the Italian chef of queen Catherine De Medici during the Renaissance period.
They were invented in A milk chocolate candy that was first created in The candy's packaging is unique and includes its iconic lilac-colored cow, which helps tie the candy back to its Alpine heritage.
Invented in by the Haribo Company, which invented the gummi bear. The Fraise Tagada is presented in the shape of an inflated strawberry covered in fine sugar, colored pink and scented.
In France , the Fraise Tagada is one of the most widely sold candies 1 billion Fraises annually and also one of the most imitated.
Various Haribo , Trolli. Akanes is a Greek sweet similar to loukoumi , only that it is flavoured with fresh butter from buffalo rather than fruit essences.
A chocolate bar popular in Hungary since A chocolate bar produced in Hungary in the s. It has a dark chocolate coating and an inner filling of rum.
Almonds that are sugar panned in various pastel colors. Introduced in , it is a candy of the Polish People's Republic. It is a chocolate -covered wafer , with four layers of wafer joined by three layers of chocolate-flavored filling.
Originating in Portugal , and common in Brazil. Traditionally prepared with grated coconut , cheese , sweetened condensed milk , sugar , butter and egg yolks.
Chocolate shaped like kamasutra positions. The Kamasutra chocolate was invented in by Florin Balan. A fruit-based candy produced in the town of Kolomna since the 14th century.
A snack made from milled and pressed curd cheese , glazed with chocolate or cream. A Serbian candy, its black color is derived from molasses , and menthol is used to add flavor.
Its full recipe is an industrial secret. Traditional Spaniard nougat. Mars  [ circular reference ]. A medium-hard, sugary confection from Scotland.
Tablet is usually made from sugar , condensed milk, and butter , boiled to a soft-ball stage and allowed to crystallize. It is often flavored with vanilla , and sometimes has nut pieces in it.
Candied sugar has its origins in Iran. It is a type of confectionery made of a crystallized supersaturated solution of water and sugar.
Carmit, Strauss , Steenland Chocolate . The term "Hanukkah gelt" refers to both money and chocolate coins given to Jewish children on the festival of Hanukkah.
Turkish cotton candy and also Bosnian is a sweet in fine strands made by blending flour roasted in butter into pulled sugar. Boiled maple syrup poured onto fresh snow, which hardens it, and rolled around a stick.
Considered as a candy in Mexico, Saladitos are salted plums , which can also be sweetened with sugar and anise or coated in chili and lime.
They originated in China. Consists of Reese's peanut butter , peanuts , pretzel , caramel and chocolate. Consists of a coconut -based center topped with two almonds , the combination enrobed in a layer of milk chocolate.
The Campana Company original producer. Ayds was an appetite-suppressant candy which enjoyed strong sales in the s and early s.
By the mids, public awareness of the disease AIDS caused problems for the brand due to the phonetic similarity of the names.
Annabelle Candy Company. Introduced in and was made by the Schutter-Johnson Company. A soft jujube candy popular in Milwaukee , Wisconsin, United States.
The candy was produced from the s until , discontinued, then revived in Licorice candy first produced in , and has been referred to as the oldest branded candy in the U.
Similar to Almond Joy , it consists of a coconut based center; however, it is enrobed with dark chocolate rather than milk chocolate and does not contain almonds.
Peanut Butter candy, circular in shape and covered in candy shells that are colored yellow, orange, or brown.
Truffle type bar with almond bits, covered in chocolate and comes wrapped in a silver foil-like wrapper. A chocolate candy that is most popularly associated with Cincinnati , Ohio, though they are sold in other Ohio cities, as well as Kentucky.
Envelops show information on various animals in its printing. Rapadura , Molasses and peanuts. Cream confection with three flavors chocolate, hazelnut, and toffee combined in one 15 gram container.
Made of milk cookies, filled with Peruvian blancmange, some pineapple sweet and in some cases peanuts, with cookies within its layers.
Pink colored taffy with fantasy flavor and a crunchy consistence that becomes chewy when moist. Sugar confited peanuts sold on the street. Vendors use to tightly package it in elongated cellophane bags.
Dulce de leche candies made in Uruguay. Small round sweet consisting of a soft chocolate centre with a hard covering of orange flavoured, red coloured confectionery.
Consists of Reese's peanut butter , peanuts , pretzel , caramel , and chocolate. Produced by adding fat and sugar to cocoa , it is chocolate with no or much less milk compared to milk chocolate.
The U. A circular version of the milk chocolate bar called Hershey's Drops was released in Bite-sized pieces of chocolate with a distinctive shape, they are wrapped in squares of lightweight aluminum foil with a narrow strip of paper protruding from the top.
A caramel candy, historically enrobed with milk chocolate and currently enrobed with a confectionery coating made from cocoa and vegetable oil.
A chocolate confection that consists of peppermint candy pieces, such as candy canes , in white chocolate on top of dark chocolate , but peppermint bark can refer to any chocolate with peppermint candy pieces in it.
Reese's Peanut Butter Cup. Taffy candy bars with peanut butter centers; originally manufactured by the Cardinet Candy Co.
A type of confection , consisting of flat broken pieces of hard sugar candy embedded with nuts such as pecans , almonds , or peanuts.
Colored pale yellow, the bar is made using sweetened condensed milk , butter and various artificial flavorings , as well as sugar.
A candy treat made prepared by spinning sugar. Also referred to as candy floss. Usually brightly colored gelatin- or pectin-based pieces, shaped like a truncated cone and coated in granulated sugar.
Outside of the U. According to the packaging, Jelly Tots are suitable for vegetarians or vegans as they contain no gelatin or animal-based ingredients.
Manufactured in various different colors, with ingredients such as peanuts, chocolate and pretzel, encased in hard candy. Using cupcake papers, the Mallo Cup became was the first cup candy by the company founded in in the USA.
Peanut Butter Cup and Smoothie were later added. Rocky Road Candy. Salt water taffy. A variety of soft taffy originally produced and marketed in the Atlantic City , New Jersey , area beginning in the late 19th century.
Skittles have hard sugar shells which carry the letter S. The inside is mainly sugar , corn syrup , and hydrogenated palm kernel oil along with fruit juice , citric acid , and natural and artificial flavours.
Four sections with four fillings: caramel, vanilla, peanut and fudge covered in milk chocolate.